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The wheat harvest is less understood than the barley harvest. We know that the wheat and tares grow together until their harvest, we know the wheat is sown by the Son of Man and the tares are sown by an enemy, we know that the wheat can't be easily distinguished from the tares until maturity (Matthew 13:24-30). But we fail to understand who the wheat represent and when it/they will be harvested.
Wheat represents spiritual Israel - believers who are not yet sanctified. Believers (like the foolish virgins) who look for the coming bridegroom but lack sufficient oil (spirit), believers who are NOT overcomers (the overcomers were barley, harvested at the 2nd coming).
Wheat must be threshed (beaten) to remove the chaff which is then burned with the tares. Unlike the barley, which only requires the wind (whispering of the spirit) of winnowing, wheat must be beaten. It isn't soft and pliable like barley.
The literal wheat harvest is 7 weeks plus 50 days after the barley harvest (I've found no significance to this time period other than the word "Pentecost" which comes from the "50 days following the 7 weeks after the wave-sheaf offering" and and is related to deliverance as in the 50 year jubilee), but it is certainly AFTER the barley, and simply the difference in time between harvests. The harvest of souls represented by wheat is a thousand years after the harvest of souls represented by barley. The barley harvest is at the beginning of the millennium which is the 2nd coming of Christ, and the wheat harvest is at the end of the millennium (which is the end of the world), 1000 years after the Messiah's second coming.
After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one could number, of all nations, tribes, peoples, and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, with palm branches in their hands... Revelation 7:9
Then one of the elders answered, saying to me, "Who are these arrayed in white robes, and where did they come from?"
And I said to him, "Sir, you know."
So he said to me, "These are the ones who come out of the great tribulation, and washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Revelation 7:13-14
So we see in the above passages that this "wheat harvest" will be a very great (large) harvest, of those that had robes by virtue of their own Faith in Messiah (they looked for the coming bridegroom), but were not yet ready (lacking sufficient oil and light) when the Bridegroom came at the First Resurrection Harvest.
Wheat is a tougher grain than barley. Years ago farmers used a tool called a "tribulum" to separate the chaff from their wheat. Today our word "tribulation" is derived from the name of that tool. It takes a tribulum to break the seed from the chaff. It goes through a breaking process to become free and be what our Father, the God of Abraham, Issac and Jacob, would have us to be - sons.
The "Wheat Harvest" represents "the church in general". It speaks of those who were justified by their own faith, but either did not go through or submit to the sanctification process of Yahweh. They are believers, but are in need of Christ's faith and Spirit and further correction in order to be sanctified and put on the divine nature and character of their Heavenly Father. There still remains iniquity (lawlessness) in their lives that must be purged by the fire (the fiery law) of Yahweh. Those who are part of the Wheat Harvest will be raised in the second resurrection to be saved "yet so as through fire"
Yahuwah's advice to Peter shows that even though his heart was in the right place, Satan was trying to convert Peter to wheat instead of barley.
And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: Luke 22:31
If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire. 1 Corinthians 3:15
After the millennium, the rest of the dead, both unbelievers and the rest of the believers, will be raised, small and great.
Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. John 5:28-29
(note, this cannot be the resurrection of the 2nd coming, because those ALL rose to salvation, these are raised, some to life and some to damnation.)
And I saw the [previously] dead, small and great, stand before Yahweh [now alive]; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the [previously] dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. [some written in the book of life] Revelation 20:12
At that time, the non-overcoming believers will receive LIFE, while the unbelievers will receive JUDGMENT, as Yahushua (Jesus) said in John 5:28, 29,
Do not marvel at this; for an hour is coming, in which ALL who are in the tombs shall hear His voice, and come forth; those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of LIFE, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of JUDGMENT.
It is apparent from Jesus' statement that the resurrection at the Great White Throne will include believers that will be given life, or immortality, as well as unbelievers who will be judged. This is why we ought to strive to attain "a better resurrection" (Heb. 11:35). The first resurrection is the better resurrection. Those who attain the better resurrection are those who will rule and reign with Yahweh during the thousand years or Age of Yahweh.
The "wheat" then, is harvested at the second resurrection unto life, after the 1000 years. This judgment of wheat is based on works, personal faith and calling on the Holy name, Yahweh. The first judgment (barley harvest) is not based on any works at all.