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The final harvest in the yearly cycle, that of the grapes and oil, is least understood. It is somehow assumed that the barley and wheat are harvested to salvation, while the grapes olives are harvested to "eternal" damnation.
This conclusion requires a theory that the vine (Yahushua) is defective, yielding bad defective fruit, or that somehow, bad fruit can come from a good vine. There is no doubt that the grapes grow and are harvested. They grow on the vine (the Christ), and branches (children of the Kingdom) and they ripen. When ripe, the sickle is thrust in and they are harvested (to be destroyed, or so the false theory goes).
If the grapes are harvested, they are good fruit. Bad fruit is pruned away before the harvest.
For afore the harvest, when the bud is perfect, and the sour grape is ripening in the flower, he shall both cut off the sprigs with pruning hooks, and take away and cut down the branches. Isaiah 18:5
Good fruit comes from a good well-tended vine. The husbandman has exercised infinite care in the preparation and maintenance of His vine and branches. He will reap much fruit.
I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing. John 15:5
Branches that don't yield fruit are removed. Branches with fruit are pruned so they will yield more.
I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit. Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you. Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me. I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing. John 15:1-5
If the first fruits are good (holy - the barley first fruits), the remainder of the harvest is good (holy - wheat and grapes).
For if the firstfruit be holy, the lump is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the branches. Romans 11:16
Here is Yahweh's promise that the grapes will NOT be destroyed:
Thus saith Yahweh, As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one saith, Destroy it not; for a blessing is in it: so will I do for my servants' sakes, that I may not destroy them all. Isaiah 65:8
The wine of the grapes represent Yahushua's shed blood. He will harvest this wine, not destroy it.
For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.
The first thing to note is that the grape harvest is months after the barley and wheat harvest. In Israel, the grains are harvested in the spring and the grapes in the fall, just before winter. In the Final Harvest cycle, the grapes aren't ready at the Christ's second coming. So, they never go to Heaven. But they are resurrected - on the Earth after the New Jerusalem comes down to the Earth. This is after the millennial age and into the age of the ages and is called the "second resurrection". (Revelation 20:6)
What happens after their resurrection? Some Christians teach that they stand judgment before the Great White Throne (true) and are then either sent to hell for eternity (false) or permanently annihilated (false). There is no clear scripture for either false doctrine, but there is ample evidence that they will finally be restored.
We know that the grapes are tread in the winepress (which was normal for grapes in the harvest on earth). The earthly winepress didn't have any purpose of destroying the grapes, but of crushing them to extract their goodness - the wine. The seeds and skins (wastes) were separated from the wine. The grapes were NOT harvested and tread in the winepress to be destroyed. The wine was saved - this was the very purpose of the grape harvest.
If Yahushua's simile is accurate, there is no other conclusion. The barley is winnowed, the wheat threshed and the grapes trodden. This was all normal harvest procedure.
But how can this conclusion be justified with traditions of destruction?
The Grape Harvest represents "the unbelievers". These include the "fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars" of Revelation 21:8. It is these who have neither been justified nor sanctified. They will go through Yahweh's wrath, judgment, and the lake of fire for the purpose of purification. This is called "trodden in the winepress".
To obtain the juice, grapes must be pressed. Traditionally, this was done by treading the grapes under bare feet in a container called a winepress. Grapes do not have chaff, but they do have "flesh" that must be pressed severely in order to obtain the wine. This represents the most severe form of judgment upon the unbelievers. Yet the result is that Yahweh obtains wine for His communion table.
Yahushua (Jesus) said that He, Himself, would tread the grapes after their harvest,
I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. Isaiah 63:3
The winepress depicts Yahweh's wrath, judgment, and the lake of fire.